Bacterial Leaf Spot is an important foliar disease of Begonia species. Infected plant material is the most likely source of contamination. X.c. begoniae can survive in dried leaves for up to one year and may survive on foliage for several months before initiating disease. Various species, cultivars, and hybrids of Begonia are susceptible to varying degrees. Sanitation is the most important disease management tactic. Affected plants and diseased plant debris should be removed and destroyed. Bacteria are easily spread by water; practices that minimize water splashing and reduce leaf wetness duration, such as ebb and flow irrigation, are recommended. Avoid handling plants with wet foliage. Copper products are registered for use on Begonias, but generally only reduce the rate of foliar infection.